Encrypted AES VPN tunnel between pfSense 2.3 and Ubiquiti EdgeRouter Lite

I recently retired my Draytek 2830 following a serious security flaw I discovered (that’s another post, stay tuned!) and took the plunge with a rather impressive looking Ubiquiti EdgeRouter Lite.

The other option was a rack mountable TP-Link TL-ER6020 although the maximum NAT throughput was only 180Mbps and it only had 128MB  DDR2 memory and no clear CPU specs, also the web interface looked tired and very restricted. Pound for pound the EdgeRouter was cheaper and has a better spec of anywhere up to and over 600Mbps, 512MB DDR2 memory and Dual‑Core 500 MHz, although it wasn’t rack mountable it was a no brainer with its modern web interface, also did I mention it can process 1 million packets per second?

The EdgeRouter also appeals to my inner nerd  (you can no doubt tell) as you can program it via web interface, command line or console connection and you can remove features you don’t need to boost performance. For example, it may only have 3 gigabit ports, but you can do whatever you like with them! In my case I have it configured as 1 WAN port and the other 2 ports are linked to two seperate LAN’s. I will write a full review when I get chance, but for now just take my word that it is the best router I have ever owned.

Anyway, to business!

Home Network

As before with the Draytek guide my home network is still double NAT’d but there isn’t a speed issue anymore. I do plan to eventually run everything via the EdgeRouter but first I need to install a few additional access points (I’m thinking a couple of airGateway-LR’s hidden in roof spaces will do, powered by PoE obviously!).

In the example below the home network subnet will be 192.168.100.x
and WAN address will be 1.2.3.4

Remote Network

The remote network is the same as before too – a pfSense machine sits at x.1 and deals with traffic to the local network.

In the example below the remote subnet will be 192.168.150.x and WAN address will be 5.6.7.8

Important

  • Each local area network must be on a seperate subnet, otherwise things can quickly get messy and conflict!
  • Make sure you use a secure pre-shared key, anything above 32 characters will do nicely and under no circumstances use the example key!
  • The example details below are fake, replace them with your own details if you want this to work

Configuring pfSense

The guide below lists only the parts you need to change, if the option isn’t listed then leave it as is. Anything to do with double NATing is in red, ignore this if your router is WAN facing.

Fairly straight forward, go to VPN > IPSec > Click Add P1

  • Enter the Remote Gateway as the WAN IP address of the EdgeRouter (or the Superhub in my case) 1.2.3.4
  • Enter a brieft description in the Description box – VPN to pfSense LAN
  • Select Peer identifer as KeyID tag then enter the WAN address of EdgeRouter (192.168.100.1) else leave as Peer IP address
  • Enter your pre-shared key in the Pre-Shared Key box – testing123
  • Set the DH Group to 14
  • Press Save

That’s your Phase 1 entry configured, now for Phase 2:

Go to VPN > IPSec > Click on Show Phase 2 Entries for Home

  • Enter Remote Network as the home network subnet – 192.168.100.0/24
  • Put a brief description in the Description box – Home
  • Set PSF Key Group to 14
  • Press Save and then hit Apply Changes

Finally, we need to create a firewall rule to allow traffic to pass over the VPN:

  • Go to Firewall > Rules > IPSec and click Add
  • Change Protocol to any
  • Enter a brief description in the Description box – Allow VPN Traffic
  • Press Save any hit Apply Changes

Configuring the EdgeRouter

First of all make sure you are running the latest firmware otherwise options may be missing and this may not go smoothly! Currently (March 2017) I’m running EdgeRouter Lite v1.9.1.

Configuring the EdgeRouter is pretty straight forward, you don’t need to do anything via command line or console (unless you really want to, knock yourself out!) – Go to VPN > IPSec Site-to-Site

  • First tick the box Show advanced options to show the encryption options
  • Under Global Options leave Automatically open firewall and exclude from NAT unless you want greater control over who can connect in
  • Under Site-to-site peers enter the Peer as the home WAN address – 5.6.7.8
  • Put a brief description in the Description box – Remote
  • In local IP enter any
  • For Encryption set AES-256
  • In Pre-shared secret enter the key set previously – testing123
  • Enter the Local subnet as 192.168.100.0/24
  • Enter the Remote subnet as 192.168.150.0/24

All being well you should end up with something like below:

Once everything is saved, head over to the pfSense IPSec Status page and hit connect if it hasn’t already established and  there you have it!

At this point you may be asking why did you uncheck the option to Automatically open firewall…, this is because I like to have greater control over what IP addresses are allowed access to my network.

To substitute this option I created a rule in the NAT section translating UDP port 4500 to the routers local IP address (192.168.100.1). In turn I set the Src Address Group of this rule to a list of predefined IP addresses, thus only allowing access to my networks and blocking the rest of the world.

 

 

 

Encrypted AES VPN tunnel between pfSense 2.3 and Draytek 2830

For a long time now I’ve managed several VMware ESXi servers and for easy management I’ve created a local area network on each making backups, monitoring and the usual sysad tasks a breeze.

The icing on the cake is that I recently swapped from m0n0walll to pfSense and went about setting up a lan to lan VPN tunnel to my home network, so now I can access everything locally as if I was on the same network.

Home Network

My home network uses a Draytek 2830 connected to a Virgin Media Superhub. Unfortunatley the Draytek is getting on a little bit now and doesn’t have the processing power to deal with my 100mbit connection speed, so I’ve had to double NAT the network using the Superhub in router mode and then DMZ everything towards the Draytek.

This isn’t a bad thing though as all the “dumb” wireless devices (mobile phones, Roku’s, Nest thermostat, etc) connect direct to the Superhub whilst my home server and everything crucial connect via the Draytek. All in all I get 70mbit through the Draytek on average and there’s plenty of bandwidth left for the devices connected to the Superhub.

In the example below the home network subnet will be 192.168.100.x

Remote Network

The remote network is pretty simple, they are all setup the same apart from x is a different number based on the virtual host name – a pfSense machine sits at x.1 and deals with traffic to the local network.

In the example below the remote subnet will be 192.168.150.x

Important

  • Each local area network must be on a seperate subnet, otherwise things can quickly get messy and conflict!
  • Make sure you use a secure pre-shared key, anything above 32 characters will do nicely
  • The example details below are fake, replace them with your own details if you want this to work

Configuring pfSense

The guide below lists only the parts you need to change, if the option isn’t listed then leave it as is

Fairly straight forward, go to VPN > IPSec > Click Add P1

  • Enter the Remote Gateway as the WAN IP address of the Draytek (or the Superhub in my case)
  • Enter a brieft description in the Description box
  • If you are double NAT’d like me select Peer identifer as KeyID tag then enter the WAN2 address of Draytek else leave as Peer IP address
  • Enter your pre-shared key in the Pre-Shared Key box
  • Press Save

That’s your Phase 1 entry configured, now for Phase 2:

Go to VPN > IPSec > Click on Show Phase 2 Entries for Home

  • Enter Remote Network as the home network subnet – 192.168.100.0/24
  • Put a brief description in the Description box
  • Set PSF Key Group to 2
  • Press Save and then hit Apply Changes

Finally, we need to create a firewall rule to allow traffic to pass over the VPN:

  • Go to Firewall > Rules > IPSec and click Add
  • Change Protocol to any
  • Enter a brief description in the Description box
  • Press Save any hit Apply Changes

Configuring the Draytek

Now it is time to configure the Draytek – Go to VPN and Remote Access > LAN to LAN

For Common Settings:

  • Enter a Profile Name
  • Tick Enable this profile
  • Make sure Call Direction is set to Both

For Dial-Out Settings:

  • Set type of server to IPSec Tunnel
  • Enter the Remote WAN IP in the Server IP/Hostname for VPN box
  • Enter the pre-shared key set previously in the Pre-Shared Key box
  • For IPSec Security Method set it to High (ESP)AES with Authentication
  • Under Advanced set IKE phase 1 propsal to AES256_SHa1-G14 and IKE phase 2 proposal to AES256_SHA1 then press OK

For Dial-In Settings:

  • Set the Allowed Dial-In Type to IPSec Tunnel
  • Tick the box to Specify Remote VPN Gateway and enter the remote network WAN IP
  • Enter the pre-shared key set previously in the Pre-Shared Key box
  • For IPSec Security Method untick all apart from High (ESP) – AES

Under TCP/IP Netowrk Settings:

  • Set Remote Network IP as the remote network subnet – 192.168.150.0

Hit OK at the very bottom to save the profile, leave it a few seconds and it should connect. If it doesn’t connect automatically, head to the IPSec Status page in pfSense and hit Connect manually

Remove Adverts from All 4 Roku App

Disclaimer

This post is for educational purposes only, it briefly describes a technique for removing the adverts from Channel 4’s on demand service. I won’t be providing any working examples and won’t be held liable whatever the outcome if you try this, this was just setup as a test one afternoon and then destroyed shortly after. Do so at your own risk.

Why even bother?

Now I love TV but I always end up forgetting and then having to catch up later using on demand services via my NowTV box, some services are great – like the BBC iPlayer – where as others – 4OD or All 4 – lack basic features like being able to resume where you left off without having to sit through the ads again.

This got me thinking, is it possible to get around the ads? Picture this… you are watching an hour long programme on your Roku (or NowTV) box, you have 10 minutes to go and you have to nip out. You come back hoping to pick up where you left off.. but oh no, something happened and now you have to watch from the begining OR fast forward until you get to an ad break, watch the ads, then fast forward again… its not good right? This has happened to me many a time!

A quick Google suggested this is not possible, but that wasn’t good enough for me.

How did you get it to work?

It took a bit of nerdy know how, a decent router and a publicly accessible Linux box.

Decent router – I was using a NowTV (watered down Roku) box, these don’t have the option to manually specify the DNS server addresses so you have to set the DNS servers in my router

Linux box – I used a CentOS 7 box running BIND and Apache, BIND responded to the DNS requests aiming everything at the Apache server

The basic idea is to redirect any requests to ‘known advertiser servers’ to your own server which is returning a single pixel instead of the advertisers video, and it did work really well:

As you can see above the same programme has ads and one does not. This method also removes the ad cue points so you are literally just served with the entire video – cool, huh?

Notes

  • This was just a test, please don’t lecture me about the importance of advertising and the revenue it generates
  • I only tested it with the Roku app, although I think it would have worked for the Xbox app too
  • I guess the same tecnique could be used to create a ‘super’ ad blocker that works with more than just on demand services

Upgrade Windows Phone 8.0 to 8.1 Before Main Release Using Developer Preview

Recently I lost my smartphone and after lots of searching decided to give up and buy a new phone. As I only really use my phone for checking emails, a little remote desktop access and the odd bit of mobile banking I didn’t need anything overkill and I fancied a change from Android so I went for a Windows based Nokia Lumia 520.

The Lumia 520 can be picked up for £69.00 on O2 pay as you go (as of 01/07/2014, see here) but I paid a little extra and got mine the same day. I was initially blown away by the Windows Phone operating system as it was better than expected and I couldn’t find any flaws. I’d setup my email, installed the mobile banking app and so on which lead me to my final task which was to install the Remote Desktop app. You’d think this would be a straight forward task installing a Microsoft product on something Microsoft powered but no, when heading to the Microsoft Store on the phone the Remote Desktop app wasn’t showing so I searched the Microsoft Store online and it came up saying that it wasn’t compatible with the Windows Phone 8.0 operating system that was currently on the phone.

I had three options, to cry in the corner, wait for the update to be released or to try upgrade the phone manually. After a little research the update was said to be released within the “…first two weeks of July…” but there was no exact date and I just couldn’t wait.

After more research it turns out that you can use a free app called Preview for Developers which allows you to basically get the update there and then instead of having to wait.

Upgrading Windows Phone 8.0 to 8.1

Below you’ll find a guide on how to upgrade the Windows Phone operating system. Please note that any changes you do here are irreversible and this will no doubt void your warranty.

  • First things first we need to create a free account with Microsoft’s App Studio using the link found here as this will give you access to the developer previews service and give you the magical updates – I used my main Microsoft account that’s linked to the phone to keep things simple
  • Once you’ve created the account go to Microsoft Store on the phone, search Preview for Developers and install the app
  • Once the app has installed launch it and you will be asked to accept the terms and conditions and login using the account details created previously
  • Next you’ll see information about what the app does and so on, all we need to do here is tick the box next to Enable Preview for Developers and press done
  • Now that’s enabled head to Settings > phone update and press check now and then follow the on screen instructions – You may need to repeat this process several times as it took me two updates to prepare the phone before the update to Windows 8.1 was offered
  • After a little while you will now be running Windows 8.1! – You can check this by viewing Settings > about > more information under the OS version heading

Notes

  • Make sure your phone is fully charged before attempting any updates as things could seriously go wrong otherwise!
  • As with anything in development stages things may be a little buggy so be aware that you may stumble across the odd glitch every now and again
  • Although not tested I assume the same steps will work for phones other than the Nokia Lumia 520, if you can confirm this I’d be grateful

Turnigy 1:16 Nitro RC Cars

I recently bought 2 Turnigy Nitro RC cars to have a little fun with, whilst being fully aware of them having a problem with the starter mechanism I hoped that HobbyKing would have resolved them by now, but unfortunately not.

I bought a Truggy for £50 and a Buggy for £70 and managed to start them both twice before the pull starter began to slip. I took the buggy engine apart and found no obvious problems, but there was a lot of oily residue covering pretty much everything, even the pull starters chord and this seemed to be the reason it was slipping.

Searching online at the HobbyKing website I  found various posts about replacing different engine parts but the most promising said that a Graupner 92600.117A back plate was the ultimate solution and stops the oily residue from the fuel seeping everywhere.

All in all it looks like a design flaw with the engine, but two new back plates are on their way from Germany, £30 inc postage and should be here in a few weeks.

Turnigy Buggy & Truggy

Update 16/08/2015 –

The new back plates fits nicely and the engines have both turned over flawlessly since. The pictures below show briefly how it was done to the buggy engine, the same steps were repeated for the truggy engine too.

A video will be attached soon showing the cars in action.

Enable SSH on LinkStation Stock Firmware

Enabling SSH on the LinkStation is simpler than you might think and opens up a world of functionality (and nerdyness) that you never had before – All this with no firmware flashing which ultimately means no data loss and no risk of bricking your box.

My motivation to enable SSH came about when my older LinkStation (a 500GB HS-DHGL) was doing a Disk Backup to my newer one (a 2TB LS-WXL) and it just seemed to be taking forever. It turned out the backup had hung part way through and the only official way to fix this problem as listed on Buffalo’s support website was to reset the box back to factory settings – That’s a bit ridiculous in my opinion but there is a work around, see this post here for more information on how to unstick a backup.

The activation process is done by a program called ACP Commander which is a command line tool that can be a little confusing to work at times with its lack of user friendly interface (if you search for this online you’ll see what I mean) however by chance I came across a reworked version that has a decent interface and is fairly easy to use.

Enabling SSH

The following guide will assume that you are on the same network as your LinkStation and are able to access it freely as you normally would day-to-day,  also if you want to keep your warranty with Buffalo do not continue!

  • Download ACP Commander GUI for Windows (.EXE file)
  • Run your newly downloaded file and you should see a screen similar to the one below:
    lsunlock-1
  • Select your LinkStation IP address from where it says Select LinkStation, then enter your password where it says Admin password and press Enable SSH
  • After a couple of seconds you will be shown a SSH enabled OK! message as seen below:
    lsunlock-2
  • The next step is to set your root password for SSH, click Set root PW, type in a password and then press OK and you will see another message like the one below:
    lsunlock-4
  • Now head to your favourite SSH software and connect to your box! If all is well you will see something similar to this:
    lsunlock-5
  • That’s all you need to do to enable SSH!

Notes

  • This method is proven to work on both Windows and Mac for the following models/firmware: LS-WXL/v1.68, HS-DHGL/v2.11, LS-QVL/v1.64
  • Common out of the box commands include: top – process viewer, vi – text editor, cp – copy files, mv – move files
  • Mine and my friends newer LinkStations had HTOP installed – Epic!
  • Enabling SSH will no doubt void your warranty with Buffalo but who needs that anyway?!
  • I didn’t create the program recommended and take no credit for it
  • Finally, if you could let me know if you encounter any problems or can confirm if this works for other models I’d be grateful
  • Thanks to Callum for confirming this works on the LS-QVL and Michael for confirming this works on the TS-X/R5 with version 1.66 firmware

Bypass Queue-it.com’s Online Queuing Service

For Black Friday 2014 Currys enlisted the Queue-it.com online queuing service to presumably create some form of buzz and make impatient paying customers even more eager to see what amazing deals they had – there really weren’t that many.

A few people at work were trying to get onto their website but found themselves not getting very far being constantly pushed to the back of the queue. As a joke I was asked to get around the queue and within two minutes I was on the Currys website.

I tried reverse proxying and modifying my browser user agent string but still found I was being redirected, meaning something in the websites source code was redirecting me. After a quick look through the source I notice some Javascript coming from the Queue-it.com domain. I disabled Javascript and was browsing instantly!

So, disable Javascript and skip that queue!

Notes

  • If you are regularly faced with Queue-it.com’s incredibly useful service consider installing browser plugin such as AdBlock or NoScript to block the entire queue-it.com domain and resume happy browsing